Movement Skill Execution/Action
Students are likely to be making more cognitive and associative movements, unless experienced players are present where they are likely to be making autonomous movement skills. The players skilled at cognitive level focus on cognitive oriented problems such as ‘What am I trying to do?’. This makes it easier for teachers and coaches to teach because they can start at the beginning and teach all of the basics and develop the skills from there, rather than starting halfway and trying to develop them, especially if the basics have been taught wrong. When observing, the teacher can create a criterion that the students need to meet and meet the level of basic, such as moves to get under the ball or keeps arms straight when digging. This tool allows for the skills to be observed, as they are all skills that can be seen, and assessed, as the teacher can either tick or cross the skill when the student has achieved it. To analyse the cognitive stage, practice the skills where a student serves to another student and they are required to set or dig back, and then a game of regular volleyball and see if the student continues to use the basic skills in the pressure situation of a game or if they are unable to transfer the movements. They may be overwhelmed because they are likely to be making many mistakes and generalised movements. During the initial stage if learning, the teacher needs to ensure that they do not tick off the skill as learnt because the student has proved to demonstrate the skill once. Although the skills are not likely to be consistent, the student should be demonstrating the skill at least three times during the lesson before getting ticked off. The students skilled at associative stage is where they use movements and environmental cues to achieve the skill, such as digging the more in game play over the net rather than digging the ball back and forth in small groups. When teaching this stage, the teacher needs to ensure that the basic skills are develop proficiently before being able to develop upon them. If they are, the students should play more modified games to use their skills more rather than the regular volleyball games where a lot of mistakes are made, and the environment makes it difficult for skills to be developed further. To observe and assess whether the skills have been developed throughout the lessons, conduct a pre and post-test video analysis to determine this. Taking a video of each of the students at the start of the unit and end of the unit allows for a more accurate assessment as the teacher can look at the video at any time. To make useful analysis of this assessment, the teacher can show the student on the video what and where they are performing the skill incorrectly and show ways of improving upon this. This will allow for the best development on skills and move the students to a more later stage where skills are consistent and efficient.
Gréhaigne. J R, Richard, J.F. and Griffin. (2005) Teaching & Learning Team Sports and Games. RoutledgeFalmer, New York.